Friday, 22 April 2016

To what extent does digital distribution affect the marketing and consumption of media products in the area of media you have studied? 

Digital distribution has a large effect on the marketing and consumption of movies. Distribution has become far cheaper because they no longer have to print out the standard 35mm film which is expensive and then needs to be transported to the location, digital distribution is far cheaper as you don't need to print it onto film, to distribute a non-digital film to 5000 cinemas would cost around $1.7 million where as a digital film would cost around 90% less, which makes it far cheaper and better for global releases such as large block busters as cinemas from around the world will be able to gain access to it at the same time. an example of this would be a new transformer movie being released, they can distribute it very cheaply as it would be shot in digital, the film would be available world wide in thousands of cinemas so distribution costs are much cheaper than if it was shot with film.

Although 35mm films are still watched, 9 out of 10 US cinemas have switched to digital projectors which are far more expensive costing around $60,00 to $150,000 which many smaller business simply cannot afford. Many people believe that using film is becoming outdated and unreliable, an example of this would be that during a screening of "titanic" the film fell apart and become unusable, if the film had been digital then this would not of happened because no matter how many times the film is shown it will not lose quality. Paramount pictures was the first large studio to announce that all of its future films will be shot digitally and no longer use film, the last film they shot on film was Anchor man 2 - the legend continues, this film was a success however the first film to be shot entirely on digital was star wars episode 2 - attack of the clones which was also a success, this tells me that the way in which the film is shot and distributed has little effect on the success of the film, however digital films are far cheaper to distribute so this might affect how much money the film makes, or smaller independent movies might benefit massively from using digital methods.

The number of films produced on film has decreased as they have become outdated, however digital isn't perfect either, as technology advances storing the films becomes more difficult as hard drives don't last nearly as long as digital film, this is because recordings can become corrupted or the hard drive could crash, film doesn't have these problems if it is stored correctly. As well as this, digital films need to be updated to newer formats which can be seriously expensive at about $10,000 to $20,000 per film. Another problem with using digital is that it can become corrupted or be deleted easily, because of this studios still make analogue copy's of the film even if the film will never be shown to the general public o a 35mm camera. Digital cameras are much cheaper to buy as the camera used to film parts of marvels avengers assemble was only £900 and fit into he palm of a hand.

The films I have studied are ExMachine and Madmax - fury roads which where both shot in digital.

Digital vs 35mm film questions

Why does Steve McQueen think digital is replacing film?
Steve McQueen thinks that digital is replacing 35mm film because people are making lots of money out of it.
Which studio was first to announce that it would no longer make films using 'film'?
Paramount pictures was the first big studio to announce that they will no longer release there films on film in the US.
What was the last 'film' to be shipped on 'film'?
Anchorman 2 - The legend continues was the last film to be released on film by paramount pictures.
What proportion of US cinemas have made the switch from 35mm to digital?
9 out of 10 US cinemas have made the switch from 35 mm film to digital.
What was the first 'major' film to be distributed in digital format only?
The wold of wall street was the first major film to be released in only a digital format.
What is the average cost of a digital projector?
The average cost of a digital projector is $60,000 to $150,000
Why has the switch to digital meant that small independent cinemas have struggled?
Many of the smaller independent businesses cannot afford expensive digital projectors
Which major Hollywood director has attempted to make a stand for digital film?
Tarantino, the major Hollywood director has attempted to defend digital film.
How much did the US box office make in 2014?
The US box office made $100 billion in 2014
How much did the home entertainment market (DVD, BluRay, Download etc) make in 2014?
The home entertainment market made $18 billion in 2014
What was the increase in home entertainment revenue due to?
Food and drink sales are behind the large increase in entertainment revenue
What was the first film to be shot entirely on digital?
Star wars episode 2- Attack of the clones
What would have been the cost of shooting that film on digital?
To shoot this film on digital it will have cost around $16,000
How much does it cost to produce and ship a film to a US cinema?
It will cost around $1.7 million to print 5000 prints and around $1,500 per print
What is the distribution benefit of digital?

What happened to 'film' prints of Titanic?

What has happened to the number of films made by Hollywood between 2006-2013?

Why, according to Jan-Christoph Horak, is digital NOT immortal?

Why is advancing technology also a problem for digital storage?

How much,  according to Jan-Christoph Horak, could transfering one form of digital to another cost the film industry?

How much did the camera used on The Avengers cost?

Apart from cost, what other benefits does digital offer to film makers?

How much has technicolour invested in digital post production?

What is a DCP?

What is the Electric Dusk drive-in?

Friday, 11 December 2015

Distribution questions

What Is Distribution?

What part of the supply chain is distribution?
Distribution is the third pat or the supply chain.
What is distribution often referred to as?
Distribution is commonly referred to as 'the invivible art' because only people within the industry know about it
What does 'vertical integration' mean when discussing distribution?
Vertical integration is where one company is in charge of all three stages, and are often seen as one large stage instead.
Why isnt 'vertical integration' so common in the independent sector?
Vertical integration isn't so common in the independent sector because producers are less likely to know large distribution companies.
What three stages are involved in the independent sector?The three stages of Distribution in the independent sector are licensing, marketing and logistics. 

 Use the link below and find answers to the following questions

What is licencing?

Licencing is the act of acquires the legal right to exploit a film.
What are the two levels of licencing?
The two levels of licencing is international and local, international is in different countries and local is in one country.
What is the advantage of being a major US studio?
A big advantage of being a major US studio is that you have distribution offices around the globe.
What three different types of rights can you acquire on a local level? 
The three rights that can be bought at the local level are theatrical rights, video rights and TV rights
What are royalties?
Royalties are what the distribution company pays the producer, taken from the profits that the film generates.
What is the most effective way to increase interest in a film?
A theatrical opening is seen as the most effective way to create interest in a new film.
How long does it take for a film to reach 'free to air' TV?
A film takes two years reach the free to air stage.

Use the link below and find answers to the following questions

What are the two key questions surrounding the marketing of a film?

The two key questions surrounding the marketing of films are when? and how?
What day are films typically released on?
Films are typically released on Fridays
What will a distributor look at before releasing a film on a Friday?
Distributors will look for a Friday where only a few movies are planned on being released to reduce competition.
What is a 'light' week in terms of distribution?
A 'light' week is a week which has very few films being released.
What does it mean to 'position' a film distinctively?
Distributers want to make sure there are no movies in the cinema with a similar story, country of origin etc to reduce competition.
Why has this become increasingly difficult in the UK?
This has become difficult in the UK because the release schedule has regularly featured over 10 new releases in a week.
What are P&A?
P&A or Prints and Advertising are the costs of theatrical distribution, met by local distributors.
How much can P&A cost?
P&A prices can cost anything, it could be less than £1,000 to over £1 million for the release of a film in the UK.

Use the link below and find answers to the following questions
Marketing - Prints And Adverts

Typically how many prints will a 'specialised' film have?

Specialised films are normally released with fewer than 10 prints.
How many will mainstream films have?
Main stream films will often open with over 200 prints.
What is a key factor in developing the profile of a film?
Favourable press response is a key factor in developing a profile for the film.
How else can awareness of a film be raised?
Another way to raise awareness for a film include advertising in local/national newspapers, adverts on TV or magazines etc.
Why is distribution in the UK seen as risky?
It is seen as risky to distribute in the UK because print advertising in the UK is comparatively high.
Why are companies looking towards viral marketing?
Companies are looking to viral marketing more to develop more effective communication with audiences at low costs.
What are the benefits of a 'talent visit'?
Talent visits support the film industry and supports the release.

Use the link below and find answers to the following questions

In the pre digital film age what was a distributor responsible for?

The distributor is responsible for the transportation of the film to the cinema.
How much does a 35mm print typically cost?
a typical 35mm print costs around £1,000 or double that if subtitled.
How many reals is a typical feature print?
A typical feature print normally has 5 or 6 reals.
Why do 35mm prints get damaged?
35mm prints often get damaged as they pass through different projectors, and the hands of various projectionists
Where are prints stored?
prints are stored in a single hard case, weighing in at 20-25kgs.
How long did a theatrical release used to last?
a theatrical release used to last around 6 months.

Use the link below and find answers to the following questions
Digital Distribution

When did digital distribution begin in the UK?

Digital distribution in the UK began in 2005
Name two advantages of digital distribution
Some advantages of digital distribution is digital sound and better picture quality movies.
Which countries adopted digital distribution early and why?

How many screens were digital in 2005 and how many are now (you'll need to google this)

Why has digital distribution radically altered the operating model of distributors?

What has happened to the typical release period for a film?

What is a loss leader (google it) and why are companies using the Cinema as a potential loss leader?

Friday, 4 December 2015

Essay question!

What significance does the continuing development of digital media technology have for media instructions and audiences?

The continued development of digital media technology is very significant to institutions and audiences as films and tv programs have changed over the years, they now use media technology in there production:

During the production stage of the TV show or film they will use digital technology such as 3D cameras to film a more exciting and better film. The development of the 3D camera has allowed people to shoot in 3D for people to see in cinemas or specialist home TV's, this has a large significance to the audience if they want to see a movie in 3D as it can make a movie better if their is lots of 3D parts in the movie, it is also good for the institution as they can make a film in 2D and 3D which broadens their target audience. Another example of digital technology used in the production stage is the edge arm, this allows the camera to stay steady and move closer to the action, which allows the institution to make better movies as they can get better action shots, it also improved the audiences experience as they get to see a better movie.

One type of digital technology which has been developed recently and used in the post production stage is CGI, although this is criticized a lot in modern movies because it makes them all very similar I believe that the visual effects it can add to the film are worth it, most movies use some form of CGI now, as people like to see large set pieces which will impress the audience. However I also believe that too much CGI is a bad thing, I think that the production must have other things, including a good story and actors to succeed, we see lots of films come out which rely mainly on special effects to wow the audience and a bad story which includes lots of action. CGI has a large significance over the audiences of the media production as it can draw many people to the film if they see it has good special effects or CGI, however it also pushes certain people away if they think the film is going to rely heavily on CGI then they may decide not to see the film. CGI also has a big significance to the institution as it allows better movies with more action to be made, however they are more expensive so less money will be spent of actors etc. We now use computers to digitally edit movies which is far cheaper and more efficient as it can be undone, redone and special effects added easily, this has had a positive effect on the audience as they can see better edited productions it has also had a positive effect on the institution as it allows better productions to be made and for them to be of a higher quality.

in the post production stage digital technology is used to advertise the production and to distribute the film. The internet or TV's allow the institution to show their movie off to lots of people at once, making people excited to see the movie or to buy tickets to see it. This is significant as thousands of people see the advert so can draw a lot of attention to the film, however it is very expensive to get adverts on TV. Another way in which the institution uses digital technology to get attention from audiences is that they release trailers or sneak peaks onto websites  like YouTube, this is good for the institution as they can advertise to lots of people for free, this is also good for the audiences as they get a preview of what the movie will have in it so can decide if they want to see it or not. Another way in which digital media is used in the post production stage is that it is they use VOD sights such as Netflix or AmazonPrime to distribute there production to lots of people at low costs, this is good for the institution s they can put their movies on these VOD sights and get paid, it is also a good thing for the audience as it allows them to see it in their home, on the move or almost anywhere however VOD sights are the alternative to illegally downloading movies which lots of people do for free, this is seen as being a bad thing as the movies are low quality and often have subtitles in a different language.

 Institutions also use viral marketing to draw attention to their movies as it allows them to advertise their movie for very little money and gets lots of attention, this is a good thing for audiences as well as they can express their views on the movie with their friends. Digitl technology is also being used to distribute the movie in the form of DVD's, this is positive for everyone because the DVD's are cheaper to produce and are better quality, they can also be distributed as Blu-ray disks which is simply a better DVD player, these Blu-rays are more expensive to buy for the user but normally contain a digital download code for the movie which allows the user to watch the movie on their phone, computer or TV which can really broaden the target audience.

Thursday, 3 December 2015

Essay Plan

Media production is dominated by global instructions which sell their products and services to national audiences to what extent do you agree with this statement?


What significance does the continuing development of digital media technology have for media instructions and audiences?

          -Film industry

     Digital media:
          -Computers -> Editing and CGI (computers being used where?)
          -Tech -> distribution & marketing:
                     - Netflix -> Illegal downloads & legal downloads
                                                       -Cheaper for the consumer and supplier
                                                       -Illegal and legal downloads
                                                       -Digital media
                                                       -Illegal web sites allow downloads for free
                                                       -People are prepared to pay for a high quality video
                                                       -Video trailers
                                                       -Special interviews etc.

           -Ad's (TV & Internet etc.)
                                                       -TV ads
           -Social media (viral marketing)
                                                       -Facebook, Twitter etc
                                                       -Viral marketing (people share it with others then it repeats)
                                                       -People spread it everywhere
           -DVD's -> Blu ray's (normally include a digital download)
                                                       -High quality
                                                       -DVD's can be ripped
                                                       -Include a digital download so the user can play on the go

     Development - improving
           -getting better at what it does.
                                                       -over time it has developed into better quality etc
           -being used more
                                                       -because its better and easier to use
           -is bigger and better so is more efficient

     Talk about how it was significant and why       

Friday, 27 November 2015

First Essay (Improvements) Successful media products depend as much upon marketing, distribution to a specific audience as they do upon good production practices.

Successful media products depend as much upon marketing, distribution to a specific audience as they do upon good production practices.
To what extent would you agree with this statement, within the media area you have studied?

I believe that a successful film must have lots of things; including a specific target audience, a good marketing campaign and good production practices, I believe that a film shouldn't be classed as successful based on only the amount of money it makes, but also on the number of awards the film wins such as Oscars or Grammys. I also believe that they number of awards is important, not just the quality of them, Mad Max Fury Road got 3 awards, where as ExMachina only got 2 however the awards Mad Max got where more impressive as they where Hollywood film awards for Production Designer of the Year and Make-Up of the Year. which are harder to win because there are lots of films made in Hollywood with a larger budget.

The latest Mad Max film (Mad Max: Fury Road) included all of these features, where as ExMachina had some but not all of them this could be down to the huge budget gap between the films, Mad Max had a Hollywood sized budget of $150 million where as ExMachina had a smaller budget of only $15 million. Mad Max also had big stars in it such as Tom Hardy and Charlize Theron, who can draw people to the film, if they liked their previous work or know their name from the media. To contrast this the British stand-alone film ExMachina stared only two less-well know actors (Domnhall Gleeson and Alice Vikenda) who are going to be staring in the new Disney's new Star Wars film so will soon be massive stars as they will be in one of the biggest films of 2015, this could mean that they where chosen for the Star Wars cast because ExMachina was a successful film and they enjoyed their acting within the film.

Both Mad Max and ExMachina had a script, however Mad Max started by story boarding the whole movie before creating a script so they where thinking about how the movie was going to look and feel before they even came up with the dialog this shows that they wanted the movie to be visually appealing from the start which ensured that the movie had good stunts and was targeted at people who like to see lots of action. ExMachina on the other hand used the traditional script method, to make sure it included everything it needed.

The idea for Mad Max: Fury road came from the previous three Mad Max films and continued the story onwards, this made it so that people who had seen the other films could see what happned next which attracts lots of people who have seen/enjoyed the other three movies. The concept of ExMachina came from a book called "the beach" which was written by Alex Garland the director of ExMachina. The beach is about isolation and despair, which could explain why the film is set in such an isolated area of the world and why certain characters are so isolated.

Both Mad Max and ExMachina where filmed in 2D however Mad Max was also originally shot in 3D which was cancelled and the 3D was added after shooting using new technology. ExMachina was only available in 2D so didn't offer cinema goers a choice to see it in 2D or 3D, where as MadMax offered them to see it in either 2D or 3D broadening their market in an unconventional way.

Mad Max was directed by George Miller who is known for several other films containing lots of action including 28 days later, 28 weeks later and the other Mad Max movies because he is well known as a good director people who liked his previous work might want to come and see his latest movie. ExMachina on the other hand was directed by Alex Garland, this is unconventional as this is his first time directing a movie so he isn't known by the public so wont really attract people to the film. A well know director can attract a large audience of people because they liked their previous films or because they are well known in the media.

ExMachina used a very clever marketing campaign to stir up attention and excitement about the film, they used social media in a controversial way to get free marketing as they post it online then people share it and then people who see that share it and it spreads all over the world quickly. The main marketing tool they used was they put a picture of the robot from the film on tinder a dating website and then continued to trick people to think they where talking to a person when it was really a robot, this was done at the south by south east festival in Texas which is a well known for lots of cool bands and attracts a large audiences. Although this marketing campaign was unconventional it was a success because it made a profit at the box office and spent very little of their budget on advertising and marketing.

Thursday, 19 November 2015

Who did what in the British film industry?

An independent non-government body which classifies and censors film, video as well as computer and console based games released in the UK.

BFI: (British film industry)
Promotes understanding and appreciation of Britain's rich film and television heritage and culture.

The official UK agency for international cultural relations. its Film departments promotes new British films (features and shorts), internationally principally through festivals and showcases. Portal site

BAOFATA: (British academy of film and television arts):
aims to support, develop and promote the art forms of the moving image.

British council;
Government backed lead agency for film in the UK ensuring the economic, cultural and educational aspects of film are effectively represented at home and abroad.

How do British films attract audiences (consider how this film might attract either a British or a global audience)

Film 4:
   -12 years a slave
   -Ex Machina
Momentum pictures:
   -The kings speech
   -Let the right one in
   -beauty and the beast (2014)
   -the iron lady
Working title:
   -Love actually
Film networks:
   -Big society